Research and study the structures and chemical properties of various natural and synthetic or composite materials, including metals, alloys, rubber, ceramics, semiconductors, polymers, and glass. Determine ways to strengthen or combine materials or develop new materials with new or specific properties for use in a variety of products and applications. Includes glass scientists, ceramic scientists, metallurgical scientists, and polymer scientists.
- Visit suppliers of materials or users of products to gather specific information.
- Test material samples for tolerance under tension, compression, and shear to determine the cause of metal failures.
- Test metals to determine conformance to specifications of mechanical strength, strength-weight ratio, ductility, magnetic and electrical properties, and resistance to abrasion, corrosion, heat, and cold.
- Supervise and monitor production processes to ensure efficient use of equipment, timely changes to specifications, and project completion within time frame and budget.
- Test individual parts and products to ensure that manufacturer and governmental quality and safety standards are met.
- Recommend materials for reliable performance in various environments.
- Confer with customers to determine how to tailor materials to their needs.
- Research methods of processing, forming, and firing materials to develop such products as ceramic dental fillings, unbreakable dinner plates, and telescope lenses.
- Devise testing methods to evaluate the effects of various conditions on particular materials.
- Teach in colleges and universities.
People who work in this occupation generally have the interest code: IR.
This means people who work in this occupation generally have Investigative interests, but also prefer Realistic environments.
People who work in this occupation generally prize Achievement, but also value Recognition and Independence in their jobs.
- Physics - Knowledge and prediction of physical principles, laws, their interrelationships, and applications to understanding fluid, material, and atmospheric dynamics, and mechanical, electrical, atomic and sub- atomic structures and processes.
- Engineering and Technology - Knowledge of the practical application of engineering science and technology. This includes applying principles, techniques, procedures, and equipment to the design and production of various goods and services.
- Chemistry - Knowledge of the chemical composition, structure, and properties of substances and of the chemical processes and transformations that they undergo. This includes uses of chemicals and their interactions, danger signs, production techniques, and disposal methods.
- Mathematics - Knowledge of arithmetic, algebra, geometry, calculus, statistics, and their applications.
- English Language - Knowledge of the structure and content of the English language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition, and grammar.
- Science - Using scientific rules and methods to solve problems.
- Critical Thinking - Using logic and reasoning to identify the strengths and weaknesses of alternative solutions, conclusions or approaches to problems.
- Reading Comprehension - Understanding written sentences and paragraphs in work related documents.
- Complex Problem Solving - Identifying complex problems and reviewing related information to develop and evaluate options and implement solutions.
- Speaking - Talking to others to convey information effectively.
- Judgment and Decision Making - Considering the relative costs and benefits of potential actions to choose the most appropriate one.
- Writing - Communicating effectively in writing as appropriate for the needs of the audience.
Most of these occupations require graduate school. For example, they may require a master's degree, and some require a Ph.D., M.D., or J.D. (law degree).
In 2017, the average annual wage in Pennsylvania was $95,000 with most people making between $62,940 and $136,270
During 2014, this occupation employed approximately 370 people in Pennsylvania. It is projected that there will be 380 employed in 2024.
This occupation will have about 1 openings due to growth and about 9 replacement openings for approximately 10 total annual openings.