Plan, direct, or coordinate activities in such fields as life sciences, physical sciences, mathematics, statistics, and research and development in these fields.
- Advise or assist in obtaining patents or meeting other legal requirements.
- Provide for stewardship of plant or animal resources or habitats, studying land use, monitoring animal populations, or providing shelter, resources, or medical treatment for animals.
- Develop innovative technology or train staff for its implementation.
- Make presentations at professional meetings to further knowledge in the field.
- Prepare and administer budgets, approve and review expenditures, and prepare financial reports.
- Conduct own research in field of expertise.
- Prepare project proposals.
- Recruit personnel or oversee the development or maintenance of staff competence.
- Design or coordinate successive phases of problem analysis, solution proposals, or testing.
- Hire, supervise, or evaluate engineers, technicians, researchers, or other staff.
People who work in this occupation generally have the interest code: CA.
This means people who work in this occupation generally have Conventional interests, but also prefer Artistic environments.
People who work in this occupation generally prize Independence, but also value Working Conditions and Achievement in their jobs.
- Administration and Management - Knowledge of business and management principles involved in strategic planning, resource allocation, human resources modeling, leadership technique, production methods, and coordination of people and resources.
- English Language - Knowledge of the structure and content of the English language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition, and grammar.
- Customer and Personal Service - Knowledge of principles and processes for providing customer and personal services. This includes customer needs assessment, meeting quality standards for services, and evaluation of customer satisfaction.
- Mathematics - Knowledge of arithmetic, algebra, geometry, calculus, statistics, and their applications.
- Biology - Knowledge of plant and animal organisms, their tissues, cells, functions, interdependencies, and interactions with each other and the environment.
- Writing - Communicating effectively in writing as appropriate for the needs of the audience.
- Reading Comprehension - Understanding written sentences and paragraphs in work related documents.
- Speaking - Talking to others to convey information effectively.
- Critical Thinking - Using logic and reasoning to identify the strengths and weaknesses of alternative solutions, conclusions or approaches to problems.
- Active Listening - Giving full attention to what other people are saying, taking time to understand the points being made, asking questions as appropriate, and not interrupting at inappropriate times.
- Complex Problem Solving - Identifying complex problems and reviewing related information to develop and evaluate options and implement solutions.
- Science - Using scientific rules and methods to solve problems.
Most of these occupations require graduate school. For example, they may require a master's degree, and some require a Ph.D., M.D., or J.D. (law degree).
In 2016, the average annual wage in Pennsylvania was $142,350
During 2014, this occupation employed approximately 1,950 people in Pennsylvania. It is projected that there will be 2,030 employed in 2024.
This occupation will have about 8 openings due to growth and about 42 replacement openings for approximately 50 total annual openings.
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- Fraud Examiners, Investigators and Analysts
- Fire-Prevention and Protection Engineers
- Mining and Geological Engineers, Including Mining Safety Engineers
- Petroleum Engineers
- Materials Scientists