Determine and formulate policies and provide overall direction of companies or private and public sector organizations within guidelines set up by a board of directors or similar governing body. Plan, direct, or coordinate operational activities at the highest level of management with the help of subordinate executives and staff managers.
- Nominate citizens to boards or commissions.
- Organize or approve promotional campaigns.
- Represent organizations or promote their objectives at official functions or delegate representatives to do so.
- Attend and participate in meetings of municipal councils or council committees.
- Serve as liaisons between organizations, shareholders, and outside organizations.
- Prepare bylaws approved by elected officials and ensure that bylaws are enforced.
- Direct non-merchandising departments, such as advertising, purchasing, credit, or accounting.
- Conduct or direct investigations or hearings to resolve complaints or violations of laws or testify at such hearings.
- Direct or coordinate activities of businesses involved with buying or selling investment products or financial services.
- Refer major policy matters to elected representatives for final decisions.
People who work in this occupation generally have the interest code: EC.
This means people who work in this occupation generally have Enterprising interests, but also prefer Conventional environments.
People who work in this occupation generally prize Recognition, but also value Independence and Achievement in their jobs.
- Administration and Management - Knowledge of business and management principles involved in strategic planning, resource allocation, human resources modeling, leadership technique, production methods, and coordination of people and resources.
- Personnel and Human Resources - Knowledge of principles and procedures for personnel recruitment, selection, training, compensation and benefits, labor relations and negotiation, and personnel information systems.
- Customer and Personal Service - Knowledge of principles and processes for providing customer and personal services. This includes customer needs assessment, meeting quality standards for services, and evaluation of customer satisfaction.
- English Language - Knowledge of the structure and content of the English language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition, and grammar.
- Law and Government - Knowledge of laws, legal codes, court procedures, precedents, government regulations, executive orders, agency rules, and the democratic political process.
- Judgment and Decision Making - Considering the relative costs and benefits of potential actions to choose the most appropriate one.
- Speaking - Talking to others to convey information effectively.
- Critical Thinking - Using logic and reasoning to identify the strengths and weaknesses of alternative solutions, conclusions or approaches to problems.
- Complex Problem Solving - Identifying complex problems and reviewing related information to develop and evaluate options and implement solutions.
- Management of Personnel Resources - Motivating, developing, and directing people as they work, identifying the best people for the job.
- Coordination - Adjusting actions in relation to others' actions.
- Social Perceptiveness - Being aware of others' reactions and understanding why they react as they do.
Most of these occupations require graduate school. For example, they may require a master's degree, and some require a Ph.D., M.D., or J.D. (law degree).
In 2016, the average annual wage in Pennsylvania was $208,150
During 2014, this occupation employed approximately 14,820 people in Pennsylvania. It is projected that there will be 14,400 employed in 2024.
This occupation will have about 0 openings due to growth and about 250 replacement openings for approximately 250 total annual openings.
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