Determine and formulate policies and provide overall direction of companies or private and public sector organizations within guidelines set up by a board of directors or similar governing body. Plan, direct, or coordinate operational activities at the highest level of management with the help of subordinate executives and staff managers.
- Nominate citizens to boards or commissions.
- Organize or approve promotional campaigns.
- Represent organizations or promote their objectives at official functions or delegate representatives to do so.
- Attend and participate in meetings of municipal councils or council committees.
- Serve as liaisons between organizations, shareholders, and outside organizations.
- Prepare bylaws approved by elected officials and ensure that bylaws are enforced.
- Direct non-merchandising departments, such as advertising, purchasing, credit, or accounting.
- Conduct or direct investigations or hearings to resolve complaints or violations of laws or testify at such hearings.
- Direct or coordinate activities of businesses involved with buying or selling investment products or financial services.
- Refer major policy matters to elected representatives for final decisions.
People who work in this occupation generally have the interest code: C.
This means people who work in this occupation generally have Conventional interests.
People who work in this occupation generally prize Recognition, but also value Independence and Achievement in their jobs.
- Administration and Management - Knowledge of business and management principles involved in strategic planning, resource allocation, human resources modeling, leadership technique, production methods, and coordination of people and resources.
- Personnel and Human Resources - Knowledge of principles and procedures for personnel recruitment, selection, training, compensation and benefits, labor relations and negotiation, and personnel information systems.
- Customer and Personal Service - Knowledge of principles and processes for providing customer and personal services. This includes customer needs assessment, meeting quality standards for services, and evaluation of customer satisfaction.
- English Language - Knowledge of the structure and content of the English language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition, and grammar.
- Law and Government - Knowledge of laws, legal codes, court procedures, precedents, government regulations, executive orders, agency rules, and the democratic political process.
- Judgment and Decision Making - Considering the relative costs and benefits of potential actions to choose the most appropriate one.
- Speaking - Talking to others to convey information effectively.
- Critical Thinking - Using logic and reasoning to identify the strengths and weaknesses of alternative solutions, conclusions or approaches to problems.
- Complex Problem Solving - Identifying complex problems and reviewing related information to develop and evaluate options and implement solutions.
- Management of Personnel Resources - Motivating, developing, and directing people as they work, identifying the best people for the job.
- Coordination - Adjusting actions in relation to others' actions.
- Social Perceptiveness - Being aware of others' reactions and understanding why they react as they do.
Most of these occupations require graduate school. For example, they may require a master's degree, and some require a Ph.D., M.D., or J.D. (law degree).
In 2016, the average annual wage in Pennsylvania was $208,150
During 2014, this occupation employed approximately 14,820 people in Pennsylvania. It is projected that there will be 14,400 employed in 2024.
This occupation will have about 0 openings due to growth and about 250 replacement openings for approximately 250 total annual openings.
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